Confronting weather and climate models with observational data from soil moisture networks over the United States

Four land surface models in uncoupled and coupled configurations are compared to observations of daily soil moisture from 19 networks in the conterminous United States to determine the viability of such comparisons and explore the characteristics of model and observational data. First, observations are analyzed for error characteristics and representation of spatial and temporal variability. Some networks have multiple stations within an area comparable to model grid boxes; for those it is found that aggregation of stations before calculation of statistics has little effect on estimates of variance, but soil moisture memory is sensitive to aggregation. Statistics for some networks stand out as unlike those of their neighbors, likely because of differences in instrumentation, calibration, and maintenance. Buried sensors appear to have less random error than near-field remote sensing techniques, and heat-dissipation sensors show less temporal variability than other types. Model soil moistures are evaluated using three metrics: standard deviation in time, temporal correlation (memory), and spatial correlation (length scale). Models do relatively well in capturing large-scale variability of metrics across climate regimes, but they poorly reproduce observed patterns at scales of hundreds of kilometers and smaller. Uncoupled land models do no better than coupled model configurations, nor do reanalyses outperform free-running models. Spatial decorrelation scales are found to be difficult to diagnose. Using data for model validation, calibration, or data assimilation from multiple soil moisture networks with different types of sensors and measurement techniques requires great caution. Data from models and observations should be put on the same spatial and temporal scales before comparison.

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Author Dirmeyer, Paul
Wu, Jiexa
Norton, Holly
Dorigo, Wouter
Quiring, Steven
Ford, Trenton
Santanello, Joseph
Bosilovich, Michael
Ek, Michael
Koster, Randal
Balsamo, Gianpaolo
Lawrence, David
Publisher UCAR/NCAR - Library
Publication Date 2016-04-01T00:00:00
Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Not Assigned
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Topic Category geoscientificInformation
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Metadata Date 2023-08-18T19:01:48.858546
Metadata Record Identifier edu.ucar.opensky::articles:18335
Metadata Language eng; USA
Suggested Citation Dirmeyer, Paul, Wu, Jiexa, Norton, Holly, Dorigo, Wouter, Quiring, Steven, Ford, Trenton, Santanello, Joseph, Bosilovich, Michael, Ek, Michael, Koster, Randal, Balsamo, Gianpaolo, Lawrence, David. (2016). Confronting weather and climate models with observational data from soil moisture networks over the United States. UCAR/NCAR - Library. http://n2t.net/ark:/85065/d72v2hqr. Accessed 14 July 2024.

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